# How do Last Whisper and Black Cleaver stack?

**I&#039;ve searched other threads for this and haven&#039;t found a clear explanation**, so I&#039;m asking here: how does Cleaver&#039;s % total armor reduction stack with LW&#039;s % bonus armor penetration (and how does flat penetration factor in as well)? As an example, consider a target with 100 base armor and 200 bonus armor, being attacked with 30% total reduction (Cleaver), 45% bonus penetration (Dominik&#039;s/Mortal Reminder), and 20 flat penetration (Ghostblade)? To avoid confusion of the topic, here are some specific questions: 1) Is the order of application listed on the wiki still accurate? (flat reduction then percent reduction then percent (bonus) pen then flat pen) 2) Is percent reduction taken proportionally from base and bonus armor (-30 base, -60 bonus in the example), or is it taken from one before the other (-90 bonus or -90 base)? 3) Is percent bonus penetration multiplicative with the percent reduction? (-0.45x140= -63 bonus for first case above, -0.45x110 or -0.45x200 in the second case, depending on which armor type is reduced first) Or, is it something different altogether? 4) Just for the sake of bonus armor scaling spells (Taric has a few), is flat penetration subtracted from base armor, bonus armor, or is it proportional? (Assuming the first case above left us with 70 base and 77 bonus armor, does ghostblade put us at 50, ~60, or 70 bonus armor?) Any insight would be greatly appreciated! **PS: Why the hell is an honest question getting downvoted? If you don't have an answer (and, no, the wiki isn't answering this question), then just don't click on the post. Jesus...** **UPDATE: Was able to test this, and the stacking works as follows: A) Cleaver 30% reduction applied proportionately to base/bonus armor (100/200 -> 70/140) B) Dominik's 45% bonus pen acts on bonus armor (70/140 -> 70/77) C) Flat pen taken off at the end, doesn't reduce either base or bonus armor because it's pen, not reduction. D) All told, 300 total armor is reduced to 147 total armor.**
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