SHUTDOWN GOLD - It scales too fast, and maximum values are capped too high. For example, if I kill you twice I am worth 450 gold and I got 570 gold for killing you those 2 times. If you kill me after getting a gank, we are back to even despite me playing better than you. Skill should most influence the outcome of a game; don't reduce skill influence by adding handicaps.
DRAGON RNG - Again, reduces the influence of skill on game outcome by creating an opportunity for chance to influenc game outcome. If the infernals show up early, and we drafted a late game comp the game is going to be inherently harder to win. To fix this we should be shown which drakes will spawn in champ select.
SHUTDOWN EXPERIENCE - This exists in its effects, but not by name; Riot doesn't claim that there is something called "shutdown xp." In any case, if you kill someone you get 50% of the experience required for them to level up, plus 7% for each level you're behind. At lvl 7 you require 3200 xp to level up, at level 5 you require 1700 xp to level up. If you do the math I just laid out for you, you will see that the level 5 - if he kills you with his jungler - will recieve 2100ish xp, which is enough to level him/her up and then some. Again, remove handicaps, because in a competitive game we want skill to most influence the game outcome; handicaps are inimical to this.
SHUTDOWN DEATH TIMERS - Once again, this is something that exists in every form except for by name. The gist of shutdown death timers is the fact that death timers vary with level, and not by time passed. The higher your level, the longer you wait when you die. This exacerbates the effects of shutdown xp and gold, because not only do you lose most of your lead from those 2 factors, the prolonged death timers give your opponent even more room to catch up by allowing them to deny you farm, while also providing them with the opportunity to farm for themselves. Again, why are handicaps in this game? Don't suggest that this game is competitive until you remove handicaps.
New Age Champions - New Age Champions often break the game because they bring some new age ability or mechanic that is either unfair or unfun to play against; but almost always is a horror to balance. For example, Yuumi is untargetable, Sylas' ultimate has too many interactions to remember, Ivern just insta-clears camps. All of these champions have a kit that is inherently broken - meaning they are broken because of what the kit does; not due to the kits damage.
RIOT'S BALANCING PRIORITIES - Based on what I have observed over the years, it seems that for Riot, balancing the game comes second to skin sales. Riot takes forever to balance champions that you'd imagine sell a lot of skins. Take Riven for instance, she was at a 54%-55% win rate for months, and Riot refused to nerf her; she is also a champion that you'd imagine sells a lot of skins due to her popularity. Now lets look at Amumu. Amumu was buffed recently, and sprang up to a 55% winrate as well; however, unlike what was the case for Riven, he was nerfed the week after. Why is it that Riot only allowed Amumu to have an ephemeral reign, but they let Riven destroy solo queue for months on end? I'll let you dicede that for yourselves.
Also, we have seen Riot buff champions excessively just prior to releasing a new skin for them in the past. Remember when Riot created that fan-selected skin for Illaoi? Shortly after Riot released this skin, Illaoi received buffs that made her overpowered in solo queue. Coincidence? These are just a few examples that come to mind, which illustrate that Riot's true objective is not to ensure that the game is fair; rather, it is to ensure that they can fill their pockets with the money of naive Riven and Yasuo players. :P